What can the movement for technology governance learn from the history of public health? And even as we turn to public health as a model for supporting a beneficial role of technology in society, what can we make of deep-seated problems that have entrenched health injustices?

That’s the question I took up in a new article published by WIRED Ideas. It’s the result of my summer research at the Knight First Amendment Institute at Columbia University and many conversations from my work on the team that co-founded the Coalition for Independent Technology Research.

Ever since I wrote an article for The Guardian in 2016 about public health models for governing digital technologies, I’ve been hopeful about affirmative visions for technology that are grounded in science rather than speculation or hype. As a Guatemalan American with a respiratory disability who studies inequality in knowledge production, I also know that the public health system is failing people of color in similar ways that the tech industry has failed society. If we’re not careful, the movement for tech governance could repeat those mistakes.

My article for WIRED cites over 85 books and articles from the history of science, the social study of journalism and civil society, and original empirical research that I have carried out over more than a decade. For those of you who want to dig deeper into the future of equitable tech governance, I’m sharing my bibliography here, along with my top suggestions for what to read next.

Futures, Models, and Problems for Tech Governance

To start, here are four articles that express my own evolving thinking about technology governance over the last few years.

A Toxic Web: What the Victorians can teach us about online abuse: Writing for The Guardian in 2016, I summarized the state of online harassment research and used the history of food and drug regulation in public health to envision a role for science in tech governance—both to prevent harms and to encourage human flourishing. Years later, I’m excited to see growing enthusiasm for independent research as a means to advance safe, functional digital environments that everyone can enjoy.

CivilServant: Community-led experiments in platform governance: What would it look like for platform research to test people’s practical questions about digital life and also inform policy? In this 2018 computer science paper, I reported on two studies in harassment-prevention and the management of recommender systems that I conducted with communities of millions of people online. This project became the seed for the Citizens and Technology Lab, which now works with communities around the world to test ideas for a fairer, safer, more understanding internet.

US Universities are Not Succeeding in Diversifying Faculty: Knowledge and education can only fully serve society equitably if they account for the needs of everyone. In this analysis of U.S. higher education data for Nature Human Behavior, my colleagues and I investigate the reasons that universities are not succeeding at their diversity goals and offer a path to change that.

Impact Assessment of Human-Algorithm Feedback Loops: How can researchers, advocates, and policymakers make sense of algorithms that are designed to adapt to ever-changing human behavior? From predictive policing and algorithmic news feeds to stock market flash crashes, the behavior of these algorithms is hard to predict or reliably change. In this article for the Social Science Research Council, Lucas Wright and I outline the science and policy challenges of managing adaptive algorithms.

Four Starting Points for Envisioning a Tech Governance Movement That Serves Everyone

Conceptualizing 20 Years of Engaged Scholarship: A Scoping Review: How can we bridge gaps between the university and civil society to serve the common good? This thorough article reviews collective progress on this question since the moment in 1996 when former Carnegie Foundation President Ernest L. Boyer published the foundational article, The Scholarship of Engagement. The wonderfully clear, thorough article covers 15 disciplines from computer science to communication, describing the values, principles, and organizational process that institutions have implemented since then.

Cosmetic Diversity”: University Websites and the Transformation of Race Categories: This paper quantitatively explains the open secret of too many institutions, including universities—that they try to whitewash deeper problems of diversity by using promotional materials, trying to “fake it till you make it.” Pamela Newkirk’s book, Diversity, Inc. explores these issues and their possible solutions in greater detail.

Toward a Historically Informed Analysis of Racial Health Disparities Since 1619: This short article by Hammonds and Reverby—two leading historians of science—offers a clear and compelling account of the American health system’s failures to support communities of color over the last several hundred years. A good follow-up would be Susan L. Smith’s book Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired: Black Women’s Health Activism in America, 1890-1950 or this systematic review on the history, recent evolution, and effectiveness of community health workers.

Racial and Ethnic Diversity is Lacking Among Nonprofit Leaders—But There are Ways to Change That: This great article by the sociologist and legal scholar Atinuke Adediran summarizes the state of nonprofit leadership in the US, explains how nonprofits have become so homogenous, and offers clear, practical suggestions for change.

Full Bibliography

This full list includes the books, scholarly articles, and news articles I referred to in my WIRED article.

Adediran, A. Racial and Ethnic Diversity is Lacking Among Nonprofit Leaders—But There Are Ways to Change That. The Conversation (2022). http://theconversation.com/racial-and-ethnic-diversity-is-lacking-among-nonprofit-leaders-but-there-are-ways-to-change-that-174490 [https://perma.cc/NK9S-B6LX].

Allsop, J.On NHJ, UNC, and CRT. Columbia Journalism Review (2021). https://www.cjr.org/the_media_today/nikole_hannah_jones_unc_tenure.php [https://perma.cc/D6GD-CJG6].

Bajaj, S. S., & Stanford, F. C. Beyond Tuskegee—Vaccine Distrust and Everyday Racism. New England Journal of Medicine, 384 (5), e12 (2021a). https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMpv2035827.

Beaulieu, M., Breton, M., & Brousselle, A. Conceptualizing 20 Years of Engaged Scholarship: A Scoping Review. PLOS ONE, 13 (2), e0193201 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193201.

Bell, M., & Lewis, N. Universities Claim to Value Community-Engaged Scholarship: So Why Do They Discourage It? Public Understanding of Science, 09636625221118779 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1177/09636625221118779.

Boling, K. S., & Walker, D. How Race and Gender Impact the Perceived Objectivity of Broadcast Women of Color on Twitter. Social Media + Society, 7 (4), 20563051211062920 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1177/20563051211062921.

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